New 2019 IRS Crypto reporting guidelines for US residents

A new 2019 IRS crypto reporting guidelines for taxpayers who engage in transactions involving digital currency has been released. Governments around the world are paying much closer attention to Bitcoin and other cryptocurrencies after seeing the market value surge from 15 billion to 600 billion in 2017. This guide breaks down the fundamentals of Bitcoin taxes and walks through the reporting process in the United States.

October 31, 2019, | AtoZ MarketsCryptocurrency investors had been waiting for updated Internal Revenue Service (IRS) guidance on how to report crypto income to the taxman for several years.

They recently got it when the IRS released a ruling and a question-and-answer document. Financial advisors might want to make sure clients who hold Bitcoin and other digital coins are familiar with the new information.

Here is a breakdown of the IRS crypto reporting guidelines for 2019.

New IRS crypto reporting guidelines for 2019

According to the official IRS guidance, Bitcoin should be treated as property for tax purposes — not as currency. This is true for all cryptocurrencies such as Ethereum, Litecoin, Ripple, etc. For tax purposes, Bitcoin must be treated like owning any other form of property (stocks, gold, real estate).

This means that you are required to report your capital gains and losses realized when trading Bitcoin and other crypto’s. Failing to do so is considered tax fraud in the eyes of the IRS.

What is a capital gain? What about capital losses?

Capital gain refers to the rise in the value of a capital asset (an asset that is some type of investment) that gives it a higher worth than the purchasing price.  Most governments collect taxes on these capital gains.

For example, if you bought one Bitcoin for $5,000 and then sold it one month later for $7,000, you have a $2,000 capital gain.

On the contrary, a capital loss is exactly the opposite. You incur a capital loss when you dispose of a capital asset (in this case crypto) for less money than you acquired it for. These losses actually reduce your taxable income on your tax return and therefore can be used to save you money.

How to calculate your Bitcoin capital gains?

Step 1: Understand what is considered a taxable event

taxable event is a specific situation in which you incur a reporting liability on your Bitcoin and other crypto transactions. The following have been taken from the official IRS guidance from 2014 as to what is considered a taxable event:

  • Trading cryptocurrency to a fiat currency like the US dollar is a taxable event
  • Trading cryptocurrency to cryptocurrency is a taxable event (you have to calculate the fair market value in USD at the time of the trade)
  • Using cryptocurrency for goods and services is a taxable event (again, you have to calculate the fair market value in USD at the time of the trade; you may also end up owing sales tax)
  • Mining cryptocurrency incurs a taxable event (in the form of income)

NOT a taxable event:

In contrast, the below are not taxable events. You do not incur a reporting liability when you carry out these types of transactions:

  • Giving cryptocurrency as a gift is not a taxable event (the recipient inherits the cost basis; the gift tax still applies if you exceed the gift tax exemption amount)
  • A wallet-to-wallet transfer is not a taxable event (you can transfer between exchanges or wallets without realizing capital gains and losses, so make sure to check your records against the records of your exchanges as they may count transfers as taxable events as a safe harbor)
  • Buying cryptocurrency with USD is not a taxable event. You don’t realize gains until you trade, use, or sell your crypto. If you hold longer than a year you can realize long-term capital gains (which are about half the rate of short-term) if you hold less than a year you realize short-term capital gains and losses.

Step 2: Determining your cost basis

Now that it is clear when you must pay taxes, it’s important to understand the exact process behind doing so.

You first must determine the cost basis of your holdings. Your cost basis is how much money you put into purchasing the property. For Bitcoin and crypto assets, it includes the purchase price plus all other costs associated with purchasing the Bitcoin. Other costs typically include things like transaction fees and brokerage commissions from the exchanges you purchase from. So to calculate your cost basis you would do the following:

(Purchase Price of Crypto + Other fees) / Quantity of Holding = Cost Basis

For example, if you invested $1000 in Bitcoin back in November of 2017, that would have bought you about 0.06 Bitcoin. Let’s say you also paid Coinbase a 1.49% transaction fee on the purchase. Your cost basis would be calculated as such: ($1000 + 1.49%*1000)/0.06 = $16,915 per Bitcoin or simply $1,014.90 per 0.06 Bitcoin

Step 3: Calculate your Capital Gain/Loss

The final step in determining your capital gain or loss is to merely subtract your cost basis from the Fair Market Value (sale price) of your Bitcoin.

Fair Market Value  – Cost Basis = Capital Gain/Loss

For example, if you sold exactly 0.06 Bitcoin a month later because the price had gone up to $20,000 per coin (or $1,200 for 0.06). This would be considered a taxable event (trading crypto to FIAT currency) and you would calculate the gain as follows:

1,200 – 1,014.90 = $185.10 Capital Gain

You would need to report and pay a tax on that $185.10 capital gain.

Understanding Fair Market Value

In this new IRS crypto reporting guidelines, it is important to understand what Fair Market Value (FMV) is. The simple capital gains calculation gets a bit more complicated when you consider a crypto-to-crypto trade scenario (remember this also triggers a taxable event). Let’s consider another example to gain an understanding of how fair market value ties in.


Let’s say you purchase $100 worth of Bitcoin including transaction and brokerage fees. That $100 currently buys about 0.01 Bitcoin. Now let’s say two months later you trade all of your 0.1 Bitcoin for 0.16 Ether.

How would you calculate your capital gains for this coin-to-coin trade?

Well, turns out, it depends on what the Fair Market Value of Bitcoin was at the time of the trade. Let’s say at the time of the trade, 0.01 Bitcoin was worth $160. This would make the Fair Market Value of 0.01 Bitcoin $160. You would then be able to calculate your capital gains based on this information:

160–100 = $60.00 capital gain

For that crypto-to-crypto trade, you would owe the government a percentage of your $60.00 gain.

This calculation and concept of Fair Market Value spark a large variety of problems for crypto traders. Some traders have been trading crypto for months, possibly years, and haven’t been keeping track of the dollar value or Fair Market Value of their crypto at the time of the trade.

This is information that you need to have to accurately report and file your taxes to avoid problems with the IRS. Depending on the volume of trades you have carried out, calculating gains accurately could become extremely tedious, and potentially impossible to do by hand or even with Excel if you haven’t been keeping track of Fair Market Value.

How to report crypto assets accurately

You need two forms for the actual reporting process when you are filing your taxes: the 1040 Schedule D and the 8949.

The Schedule D is the IRS form on which you report your capital gains for all of your personal property–be that stocks, artwork, cars, etc.

You will use the 8949 to detail each Bitcoin trade that you made during the year and the gains that you realized on each trade. Total these up at the bottom of the 8949, and then transfer the total sum onto the Schedule D.

It might be useful to automate the creation of your 8949 and other tax forms by using CryptoTrader.Tax.

What happens if I don’t report my Bitcoin taxes?

A lot of traders are convinced that because of the anonymous, decentralized nature of Blockchain and crypto transactions, that there is no way for the government to see or know that they are making money trading/buying/selling Bitcoin. Unfortunately, this is not true.

While the IRS has been slow to this point when it comes to dealing with crypto taxes, the win against Coinbase, which required the popular exchange to turn over records for individuals who have $20,000 or more in any transaction (buy/sell/ or receive), and their public statement on July 2nd, 2018 explaining that the taxation of virtual currencies is one of their core campaigns for the 2018 year, shows their intent in years to come.

The Blockchain is a distributed public ledger, meaning anyone can view the ledger at any time. Figuring out an individual’s activities on that ledger essentially comes down to associating a wallet address with a name. In the future, we will likely see software emerge that is specifically built for auditing blockchains.

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